The Nenets are one of the indigenous peoples of the North, inhabiting the coast of the Arctic Ocean from the Kola Peninsula to Taimyr. Traditionally, the Nenets are engaged in large-scale reindeer herding.

On the Yamal Peninsula, several thousand reindeer herders roam, owning millions of reindeer. Some reindeer herders still lead a nomadic life, moving with herds along established routes - in summer to the north, and in winter to the south. The nomadic way of life has shaped many elements of traditional culture - a portable dwelling (chum), reindeer teams and sleds, clothing adapted to the ferocious climatic conditions. Reindeer herding camps are practically independent from the outside world and live on full self-sufficiency. People feed deer, and deer feed people.